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DJB Gas Services — Salt Lake City, UT · St. George, UT · Las Vegas, NV Supply and service of welding, industrial, and medical gases and equipment.

Acetylene

(C2H2) is not an air gas, but a synthesis gas generally produced from the reaction of calcium carbide with water. It was burnt in "acetylene lamps" to light homes and mining tunnels in the 19th century. A gaseous hydrocarbon, it is colorless, has a strong garlic odor, is unstable, highly combustible, and produces a very hot flame (over 3000°C or 5400°F) when combined with oxygen.

Laboratories & analysis

Acetylene is the fuel gas in atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS)

Welding, Cutting & Coating

  • Acetylene is the most effective and versatile fuel gas; C2H2 enabling manual applications such as welding, brazing, cutting, straightening or any other localised heating process. 

Argon

The atmosphere contains about 0.9 % of argon. A neutral and colorless gas like nitrogen, it does not however exist in nature other than in the air. It cannot sustain life, but it is highly used in certain industrial applications due to its high level of chemical inertness and the relative ease with which it can be produced.

Argon Physical Properties

  • Argon is a monatomic, colorless, odorless, tasteless and nontoxic gas.

Used pure and in mixtures for industrial and hospital analyses and quality control. More particularly, argon is used as plasma gas in inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP), blanket gas in graphite funace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and as carrier gas in gas chromatography for various detector. In mixture with methane, argon is used in Geiger counter and in the detector of X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) as quentching gas.

Welding, Cutting & Coating
Argon is a shield gas used in arc welding, root shielding and plasma cutting. Argon protects welds against oxidation as well as reduces fume emissions during welding.

Electronics

Ultra-pure argon is used as carrier gas for reactive molecules, as inert gas to protect semiconductors against impurities (e.g. Argon provides the atmosphere for growing crystals of silicon and germanium).
Under ionic state, argon is used for sputtering, ion implantation, annealing and etching processes in semiconductor or high performance material manufacturing.

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide gas is formed from the combination of two elements: carbon and oxygen. It is produced from the combustion of coal or hydrocarbons, the fermentation of liquids and the breathing of humans and animals. Found in small proportions in the atmosphere, it is assimilated by plants which in turn produce oxygen. CO2 gas has a slightly irritating odor, is colorless and heavier than air. It cannot sustain life. It freezes at -78.5 °C to form carbon dioxide snow. In an aqueous solution it forms carbonic acid, which is too unstable to be easily isolated.

Humans use carbon dioxide in many different ways. The most familiar example is its use in soft drinks and beer, to make them fizzy. Carbon dioxide released by baking powder or yeast makes cake batter rise.

Some fire extinguishers use carbon dioxide because it is denser than air. Carbon dioxide can blanket a fire, because of its heaviness. It prevents oxygen from getting to the fire and as a result, the burning material is deprived of the oxygen it needs to continue burning.

Carbon dioxide is also used in a technology called supercritical fluid extraction that is used to decaffeinate coffee. The solid form of carbon dioxide, commonly known as Dry Ice, is used in theatres to create stage fogs and make things like "magic potions" bubble.

HELIUM

Helium is abundant in the Sun's atmosphere and is found at trace level in the Earth's atmosphere. The name helium comes from the Greek ἥλιος (helios) meaning "the Sun". However, it may also be found in fossil form in natural gas pockets in some oil fields, where it is extracted by drilling deep into the subsoil of certain regions in the U.S.A., Algeria and Poland. Helium is an extremely light gas (its density is 0.169 kg/m3) and is therefore very volatile. It is colorless, odorless, non-flammable and completely inert. It cannot sustain life.

Helium is the most commonly gas used as carrier in gas chromatography. Under liquid state, at -269 °C, helium is the cooling fluid for the MRI, NMR or EPR magnets.

Other industries

  • Balloon inflation 
  • leak detection 
  • because the boiling point of helium is close (-269 °C or -452 °F) to the absolute zero (-273 °C) He is used for cooling of superconducting magnets 
  • used in helium neon lasers, helium is a component of the special mixtures used in CO2 lasers (§ LASAL™). 
  • blanket gas to exclude air from certain fabrication processes. 
  • helium is used as a heat transfer material.

    Molecular Weight 
  • Molecular weight : 4.0026 g/mol
    Solid phase 
  • Melting point (under 26 atm) : -272.2 °C
    Liquid phase 
  • Liquid density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 124.96 kg/m3
  • Liquid/gas equivalent (1.013 bar and 15 °C (59 °F)) : 748 vol/vol 
  • Boiling point (1.013 bar) : -269 °C 
  • Latent heat of vaporization (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 20.3 kJ/kg

Critical point

  • Critical temperature : -268 °C 
  • Critical pressure : 2.275 bar 
  • Critical density : 69.64 kg/m3 

Hydrogen

H2: THE GREEN GAS Discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1766, hydrogen owes it name to Lavoisier, who combined the Greek hydor, water, and genen, to engender. It is the lightest gas in the world and therefore is not held by the earth’s gravity.

Hydrogen is only found in the atmosphere at trace levels ; it is synthesized from hydrocarbons (petroleum and petroleum by-products) and from water where it constitutes the lightest fraction of the H2O molecule. Hydrogen gas is colorless, highly flammable, very light, cannot sustain life and reacts easily with other chemical substances.

The fuel cell
The world dreams about driving in a silent car that doesn’t pollute! Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier. Used in a fuel cell, it combines with oxygen to efficiently produce electricity and doesn’t emit anything… except water.
A REACTANT PRIZED BY THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES; AN EXCELLENT CLEAN ENERGY CARRIER

Food and Beverage
Pure hydrogen is used for the production of plastics, polyester and nylon. H2 gas is also used in the hydrogenation of amines and fatty acids (food oils).

  • Glass, Cement and Lime
    Hydrogen is an active gas used in combination with nitrogen to create a reductive atmosphere over the tin bath in the FLOAT glass process. Hydrogen is used for heat treatment (oxy-hydrogen flame) of the hollow glass and the optic fibers pre-forms. 
  • Metals industry
    Reductive atmosphere for various processes of heat treatment. 
  • Laboratories & analysis
    Hydrogen is used as a carrier gas in gas chromatography and in various analytical instrument applications, most commonly as a fuel component of combustion gases for Flame Ionization (FID) and Flame Photometric (FPD) detectors. Spark discharge analyzers, total hydrocarbons measurements use also hydrogen mixtures. 
  • Welding, Cutting & Coating Heat treatment of various metals 
  • Oil and Gas Desulurization of fuel-oil and gasoline 
  • Electronics
    Hydrogen is used as carrier gas in semiconductor processes, especially for silicon deposition or crystal growing and as a scavenger gas in atmosphere soldering as well as for annealing copper films. The use of forming gases (that is H2 diluted in nitrogen) allows virtually a complete elimination of oxygen and its inconveniences in medium to high temperature processes.

NITROGEN

Nitrogen is mainly found in the atmosphere, where it accounts for 78 % by volume of the air we breath. But nitrogen is also found: - in the Earth's crust, to a limited extent (in the form of nitrates, etc.), - in organic form (in the living or dead plants and organisms which form humus) - and in mineral form (ammonia), and thus contributes to soil fertility. In gaseous form, nitrogen is a neutral and colorless gas. It is inserting and does not sustain life. 

Chemicals

Nitrogen can be used for blanketing, as well as for :

  • Storage for protecting raw materials or finished products in liquid form from the formation of peroxides and/or gum, and from contamination by oxygenated components 
  • Regeneration of purification beds (alumina and molecular sieve) 
  • Preparation of catalysts and transportion of polymer powders 
  • Medium for the exhaust of emitted heat in fluid bed reactors 
  • Temperature Control in reactors. 

Pharmaceuticals
Nitrogen is used for inerting, cryo-grinding, lyophilisation, drying, liquid phase transfer of products or synthesis intermediates; cryo-condensation of waste gases and low temperature storage.

Food and Beverage
Liquid nitrogen: N2 is the most used cryogenic fluid, to chill, freeze or store food products. Gaseous nitrogen: N2 is very commonly used in contact with foodstuffs to avoid oxidation or micro-organism growth by inerting of liquids. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) preserves and protects foods ( pure nitrogen or mixed with CO2) (§ALIGAL™). Glass, Cement and Lime Nitrogen is used as an inert gas especially to create, in combination with hydrogen, a reductive atmosphere over the tin bath in the float glass process.

Healthcare
Low-temperature preservation of living tissues and cells

Laboratories & analysis
Nitrogen is used as a carrier gas in gas chromatography for various industrial and hospital analyses and quality control. Nitrogen is the balance gas of the calibration gas mixtures for environmental monitoring systems and industrial hygiene gas mixtures. Nitrogen is largely used as purge, dryier or blanket gas for analyzers or chemical reactors (under gaseous state or at low temperature liquid state). Welding, Cutting & Coating Heat treatment of various metals. Nitrogen is a component of the special mixtures used in CO2 lasers (§ LASAL™).

Oil and Gas Quality
Protection of products and facilities (blanketing)

Electronics
Nitrogen is used as carrier gas for overall protection against impurities and oxidation in semiconductor and soldering processes. In its cold and liquid form, N2 is used as a cooling medium in the environmental testing of electronic devices.

Automotive & transportation
Gas Assisted Injection Moul style="font-size:12px;"ding requires pressures between 10 bar (145 psi) and 200 bar (2900 psi) and a nitrogen content of between 98.0 % and 99.9 %. Tires filling with nitrogen increases their lifetime and therefore decreases the recycling or treatment of this waste.

Other industries
Pneumatic transportation of powdered flammable materials (charcoal). English Units Normal Boiling Point (1 atm) Gas Phase Properties @ 32°F & @1 atm Liquid Phase

For example, oxygen makes up by weight: - 46% of the Earth's crust (in the form of oxides, silicates, etc.) - 89% of the Earth's water (in the form of molecule - 21% of the air we breathe - 62% of the human body (in the form of molecules) In its most well-known form (it constitutes 21% of the atmosphere), it is a tasteless, odorless and colorless gas essential to life. IT CAN COMBINE WITH ALL THE OTHER ELEMENTS EXCEPT THE RARE GASES IN ORDER TO OXIDIZE THEM AND CONSEQUENTLY PRODUCE ENERGY. Oxygen can be used pure in chemical oxidation reactions such as the production of ethylene oxide (EO), propylene oxide (PO), ethylene dichloride (EDC), vinyl acetate monomer (VAM), titanium dioxide (TiO2), ferric sulfate and also for the debottlenecking of air-based processes such as those in the production of acrylonitrile and purified terephtalic acid (PTA). O2 is also used in the production of synthesis gas (H2/CO).

Pharmaceuticals
Oxygen is used in chemical synthesis, for enrichment of air during fermentation, for treatment of wastewater and flame sealing of glass ampul style="font-size:12px;"s for finished products.

Food and Beverage
Oxygenation of fish-breeding tanks Glass, Cement and Lime Mainly used for the glass melting and generally for all oxy-combustion process.

Healthcare
Treatment of respiratory insufficiencies and resuscitation, in hyperbaric oxygen changes for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Metals industry
As in the iron and steel industry (Decarburization of hot metal to produce steel, and to enrich blast furnace air), oxygen is used in non ferrous primary production, secondary smelting etc.

Laboratories & analysis
Oxygen is used in calibration gas mixtures for petrochemical industry; environmental emission monitoring, industrial hygiene or safety monitors and trace impurity analyzers. Oxygen is used in bomb calorimeters to measure the PCI of hydrocarbons or coal and in oxidation reactions.

Welding, Cutting & Coating
With acetylen or LPG's, oxygen allows to boost the flame properties in flame torches and burners (flame temperature, specific flame output power). The second way in which oxygen is used is to provide an highly effective jet for oxy-cutting carbon steels (non- and low-alloyed).

Oil and Gas
Oxygen is used in raffinery to enrich air of regeneration of Fluid Cracking Catalytic units (FCC) (up to 28 % in O2). 

OXYGEN

O2 THE REACTIVE GAS:
The oxygen element was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley. It was only later that its high level of chemical reactivity was discovered. Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygène in 1777 from the Greek -ὀξύς (oxys) (acid) and -γενής (-genes) (producer, literally begetter).
It is the most abundant element on the earth’s surface.

For example, oxygen makes up by weight:
- 46% of the Earth's crust (in the form of oxides, silicates, etc.)
- 89% of the Earth's water (in the form of molecules)
- 21% of the air we breathe
- 62% of the human body (in the form of molecules)

In its most well-known form (it constitutes 21% of the atmosphere), it is a tasteless, odorless and colorless gas essential to life. IT CAN COMBINE WITH ALL THE OTHER ELEMENTS EXCEPT THE RARE GASES IN ORDER TO OXIDIZE THEM AND CONSEQUENTLY PRODUCE ENERGY.

Main applications

  • Industries Applications 

  • Chemicals
    Oxygen is used to improve the yield of a large number of petrochemical processes. Oxygen can be used pure in chemical oxidation reactions such as the production of ethylene oxide (EO), propylene oxide (PO), ethylene dichloride (EDC), vinyl acetate monomer (VAM), titanium dioxide (TiO2), ferric sulfate and also for the debottlenecking of air-based processes such as those in the production of acrylonitrile and purified terephtalic acid (PTA). O2 is also used in the production of synthesis gas (H2/CO). 

  • Pharmaceuticals
    Oxygen is used in chemical synthesis, for enrichment of air during fermentation, for treatment of wastewater and flame sealing of glass ampuls for finished products. 

  • Food and Beverage
    Oxygenation of fish-breeding tanks 
  • Glass, Cement and Lime
    Mainly used for the glass melting and generally for all oxy-combustion process. 

  • Healthcare
    Treatment of respiratory insufficiencies and resuscitation, in hyperbaric oxygen changes for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. 
  • Metals industry
    As in the iron and steel industry (Decarburization of hot metal to produce steel, and to enrich blast furnace air), oxygen is used in non ferrous primary production, secondary smelting etc. 

  • Laboratories & analysis
    Oxygen is used in calibration gas mixtures for petrochemical industry; environmental emission monitoring, industrial hygiene or safety monitors and trace impurity analyzers. Oxygen is used in bomb calorimeters to measure the PCI of hydrocarbons or coal and in oxidation reactions. 

  • Welding, Cutting & Coating
    With acetylen or LPG's, oxygen allows to boost the flame properties in flame torches and burners (flame temperature, specific flame output power). The second way in which oxygen is used is to provide an highly effective jet for oxy-cutting carbon steels (non- and low-alloyed). 

  • Oil and Gas
    Oxygen is used in raffinery to enrich air of regeneration of Fluid Cracking Catalytic units (FCC) (up to 28 % in O2). 

  • Pulp and paper
    Environment-friendly paper pulp bleaching : Oxygen is mainly used in the delignification step, O2 participates in the boosting of bleaching operations like alkaline extraction (Eo), in white or black liquors oxidation, polysulfure liquors production as well as combustion (lime burning kiln, boilers boosting). Oxygen is also used in the waste treatment and as precursor of ozone. 

  • Electronics
    Ultra-pure oxygen is used to oxidize certain materials, such as Si to SiO2, or ashing of photoresists and to achieve chemical vapor deposition of oxides. It is also used to make ozone for oxidations or cleaning. 

  • Space and Aeronautics
    Oxygen is used in their liquid states as ergols for the propulsion of the cryogenic stages of the Ariane rockets. 

  • Environment
    In a biological basin, oxygen enhances the waste water treatment (BOD, sludges, odors, energy). Oxygen also improves waste treatment, decreasing the amount of incineration emissions by a factor of up to 7. 

  • Other industries
    Biological water purification, clean waste incineration, ozone synthesis


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